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Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is developed to measure how well 15-year-old students prepare for their future life. The purpose of PISA is to evaluate (1) overall performance of education systems, (2) equity of learning opportunities, (3) consistency of performance across schools, (4) gender differences, and (5) foundations for lifelong learning. PISA aims to estimate students’ literacy in domains of reading, mathematics, and science. The ranges of benefit group from this assessment are widely encompassing from the government policy maker, education authority, school administrator, parents and to all citizens.

It provides an international benchmark of students performance and trendy analysis. Via the background variables, countries can investigate the correlations among demography, social-economic, parental involvement and education systems and so on.   

Issue of learning equity is the theme discussed. Along this line, two extended studies are included. The first study intends to investigate the degree of learning equity between achievement of Basic Competence Test for Junior High School Students (BCTEST) and literacy of PISA. The second study intends to investigate the relationship between student’s learning literacy and teacher’s professional background. There will be three major tasks in the first study. One is to compare the nature of achievement and literacy, with the effects of socioeconomic-status (SES). The other two are to examine different relationships between achievement and literacy in gender, SES levels, school types, and learning beliefs and orientations.